ASSIGNMENT 3

Assignment 3 – Feedback and reworking

Tutor feedback on assignment 3 can be found here. Based on the comments received I changed some aspects of this assignment.

  • When I started the shooting for this assignment, I was looking for something which is the opposite of what we normally expect to see in “decisive moment” images. Henri Cartier-Bresson primarily captured organic forms in motion within a geometric frame. It was the relevance of the captured moment (of that action) that made his pictures particularly endearing. But while the behaviour of the subjects was key, the backdrop and its shapes was also an important ingredient used to not only to provide context but also to lead the eye. My intention with this series was to concentrate on the backdrop and to capture it at the right moment (hopefully decisive) when it can lead to questions in the viewer mind. Questions about what is happening in frame where not much is going on.
  • I understand my interpretation of the brief was perhaps a bit too adventurous and this is reflected in the feedback I got, but I still wanted to try something different from the traditional realm of “street” photography, which closely follows the decisive moment style, and which is too close to what I normally photograph, so I decided that I for the formal assessment I would continue with my original concept and try to reinforce the set by re-selecting and reshooting some of the images:
    • The three landscape-oriented pictures in the original set were all replaced by either re-selected shots from the original sessions or by new images taken specifically for the re-work. Looking at the original set, these images do not fit entirely well with the rest from an aesthetical point of view, but I still included them because either they had some relation to the ideas I wanted to convey (evidence of human presence or activity, such as the tennis court image) or because they were related to the mechanical process of waiting for the “decisive” moment to fire the shutter, such as the image of the canal. This latter picture, together with the park shot in the Barbican, only offer limited evidence of human activity or intervention, and look more like landscape shots.
    • The four portrait-oriented images from the original submission were all images with an urban theme. I wanted the substitute images to have a similar look to create a more cohesive set. The first two replacing images show empty offices and playing grounds respectively. The final picture was taken in one of London’s canals, just like in the original submission but on this occasion, I combined the canal with an empty side street running alongside the canal, which on the day I took the picture did not have any parked vehicles, adding to the sense of desolation that I wanted to imprint in the series. This image also includes an abandoned white kitchen top, which drew my attention to this in the first place. The visual effect of this on the image is quite subtle, as it only visible from the side, but it combines well with the other images in the set that include transitory elements, such as the remaining Barbican picture (an empty plate left on one of the tables), the Cheapside junction image (a sweeper cart) or the Moorgreen House image (an empty cardboard box). Incorporating more transitory elements in the images was another recommendation made by my tutor as part of the assignment feedback process.

The revised set of images are shown below, with updated comments as needed. The original set with comments can be found here. The first four images in the revised set, all in portrait orientation, are the same that were included in the original submission. The last three images, all in landscape orientation, are newly selected pictures (either from the originally taken images or newly shot).

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Cecil Court, City of Westminster – This was taken early on a Sunday when the shops in the court were mostly closed, which helped to have a clear foreground, but the thoroughfare at the far end is Charing Cross road, which is one of the busiest roads in central London, even on a Sunday. I did have to wait a while for people chatting on the pavement there to move along, as well as for the road to be cleared of buses and other traffic.

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The Barbican estate, City of London – This was also taken on a Sunday, around 10 am. The sitting area in the foreground is usually quite busy during weekdays, but relatively quiet during weekends. The main challenge in this occasion was people constantly entering the church at the back, as this was taken just before the start of Sunday’s service.

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Cheapside, City of London – Again taken on a Sunday, when crowds tend to be more subdued. In this one, I had to wait for people on the shop to the right to move out of the way (there was a smoker who removed himself by hiding behind one of the columns, although you can still see the smoke from his cigarettes if you look carefully). Surprisingly, the owner of the sweeper cart in the foreground did not enter the frame during the 5 minutes or so that I had to wait to take the picture. For this picture and the previous two, the shooting strategy primarily focused on selecting the right time of the day / week when places that would normally be full of people were less busy.

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Moorgreen house, Islington – This was taken during a working day, but I did not have to wait particularly long to take this picture because this road actually leads to the back of the estate and consequently not as busy as the main entrance. For this picture, and the next one, the shooting strategy centered around finding locations that were urban and played into the expectation of being busy, but that in reality are never too busy, thus facilitating the shooting process.

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King Square Estate, Islington – This picture was taken mid-morning on a saturday and I was expecting to find people working out or playing in the estate recreational facilities, but it was relatively quiet, so it was possible to take the shot relativelly quickly. This picture was newly taken for the re-working of the assignment.

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Moor lane, City of London – This picture, re-selected from the original assignment shooting sessions, was taken on a weekday around noon. Although one would expect most office workers to be out for lunch around this time, there is always people having lunch at their desks or working through their break hour. On this particular day I was lucky to find the office desks relatively empty, for which I did not have to wait too long to take the picture.

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Dunston road and Regent’s canal, Haggerston – This picture was taken specifically for the re-work with a 21mm wide-angle equivalent, around noon on a weekday. This section of the canal is relatively busy during this time of the day with people running during their lunch break, and I had to wait a few minutes for the path to clear. I was particularly taken by the emptiness of the road here, with no vehicles parked even though there is a bay for residents on the right hand side. I was also attracted to the abandoned kitchen top left against the canal railings, which subtly drags the eye towards the lower third of the frame. 

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As in the case of the original submission, I framed the re-worked prints using a conservation board mat. While in the original prints the mats were backed by another piece of board, for the re-worked submission I used watercolour paper as a backing, achieving both a reduction in thickness and weight for each framed picture, without compromising on the presentation of the images. The series is intended to be shown hanged for exhibition, arranged as a cluster. My original idea about this is presented here, with the layout updated to include the new picture selection.

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Assignment 3 – Self assesment

Looking at the end result of my third assignment submission, I summarise in the following table some personal notes in relation with the course’s assessment criteria:

Assessment criteria Personal views
Demonstration of technical and visual skills In general I believe the final selection of photographs demonstrate reasonable levels of competency in terms of framing and composition. The challenge that I was facing was to compose the photographs in a way that could create interest, and this was not always easy given that I was departing from the canons of street photography. Where possible, I tried to anchor the frames in something that was unusual or which stood out, but the effect of this is not as strong in some of the prints.

I am generally pleased with the physical outcome of the prints. I feel the materials used were the best I had available and that I have had given due consideration not only to the prints but also to their presentation. The mounting equipment I have access to is not of professional grade and inevitably, the hand-cutting of the frames may in some places be below the standards usually seen in galleries. I have tried as much as possible to mitigate this, but I recognise it may be a shortcoming

Quality of outcome I feel generally satisfied with the connection between the final prints and the ideas that I set out to convey. When I started this assignment, I was not entirely clear about what the final concept was going to be, but this evolved after the first shootouts and consequently, the latter sessions were more productive in that respect. In the final selection, I was constrained by my desire to present a variety of subjects, all linked by the common denominator of human activity without its presence, and this resulted in difficult decisions because some subjects were underrepresented, which limited choice and may have impacted the strength and coherence of the series as a whole.
Demostration of creativity The ideas I set to convey are not, of course, entirely original, but they represent a significant departure from my usual way of shooting and the linking of these ideas to the concept of the decisive moment is perhaps slightly unusual and most likely a bit of a creative risk on my side, but the execution of the ideas themselves was straightforward. The main challenge that I faced was not technical but logistical: I wanted in as much as possible to take these pictures in normal daylight hours and without resorting to special shutter or post-processing tricks to make people disappear. In that respect, I tried various approaches, some of which were more effective than others: sessions at odd lunch hours during work days (thus minimising people on the streets); sessions early on Sundays or at any time during the weekend in the financial districts of London; scouting places and areas of the city which are central but not popular with tourists.
Context The research process for this assignment was shorter than what I undertook in previous parts of the course and was narrower in scope, being primarily limited to the aesthetics of Henri Cartier-Bresson and critical analysis around it. I feel that for the ideas that I developed the research I did was just sufficient to complete a satisfactory submission; but because of the limited scope of my research, I suspect that some of the concepts for this assignment are bound to shift in the future as I deepen my knowledge on the subject matter.

Assignment 3 – Printing and presentation

For this assignment, I printed the final pre-selection in smooth pearl resin coated paper, which provides a bit more lustre than matt paper without being as reflective as the glossy one. The photographs were printed with an archival-quality pigment ink printer. They were printed in A4 paper, leaving a border of approximately 1 inch to each side. This resulted in a printed surface of around 24 x 16 cm. The borders were set specifically wide to allow for mounting.

For storage and presentation, the prints were to be boxed in a A4 portfolio box for photographs similar to this one. The internal area of the box itself is not really A4, but actually C4, which is the envelope size corresponding to unfolded A4 paper, and is slightly larger at around 23cm x 32. I took advantage of this more generous size to cut my mounts to a custom size that would fit the box snuggly.

Every picture was mounted on off-white conservation board, which was cut to size by hand. The board used was John Purcell’s Heritage 1380 microns. This is a good quality white core buffered board of archival specifications that is more rigid than the regular acid-free board available on art shops, yet is priced similarly. The disadvantage is that its smallest size is larger than A1 and consequently it has to be cut to size. Both the backing board and the mat are of the same material.

The window of the mat was also cut by hand using a bevel cutter. The window was sized at 3.5cm per side. Each photograph was mounted using the t-hinge method and acid free removable linen tape. The borders of the mat were glued to the backing board using a small amount of water-soluble clear glue. Each mounted photograph was weight-pressed for 24 hours to ensure the mount borders were sealed.

Each photograph was stored in the box and covered with piece of cartridge paper to separate the plates from the notes accompanying the assignment.

The photographs were mounted to protect them from damage but also because I wanted to explore how to present the photographs in gallery setting, for which they would normally be mat mounted and framed. For a gallery presentation, I was inspired by the arrangement of Sergio Larrain’s photographs of London in the recent exhibition “Strange and Familiar” organized by the Barbican Centre (a picture of how that arrangement looked like can be found here). The idea is to organize the photos in a cluster, a bit closer than that used in the case of Larrain’s pictures, and for that reason the bezel of the mount was relatively thin. The arrangement is still geometric but a little bit less formal than the usual sequential approach, which is aligned with the overall concept of the series, trying to move the viewer away from normal expectations. Clustering the photographs also allows for a quick movement from one picture to the next and permits the viewers to look at the pictures in their own order, rather than the order dictated by the curator. The schematics of how the pictures would be presented is shown below:

gallery-layout

Accompanying the pictures, I propose the following short introductory text:

Traces of humanity

In this series, I wish to explore our relationship with the environment that surrounds us on a daily basis, but that many times we take for granted. Evidence of our influence is provided, but our presence is deliberately obviated through the choice of timing, allowing the viewer to challenge expectation of what they would normally see in scenes they may be familiar with.

 

 

Assignment 3 – Shooting and selection

In approaching this assignment, I was conscious that there are various means of freeing a picture of people which would not be compatible with the idea of choosing the “decisive moment” to take a shot. One of them would be to set a very long shutter speed with the camera on a tripod. Another would be to crop or clone out individuals. I made a conscious decision to avoid those in my process. I set to go out and take pictures during daytime at normal shutter speeds, and wait (sometimes for a long time) until there was a moment where no one was visible in the frame. In a way I was being faithful to my way of approaching street photography, but rather than waiting for a person to walk into the frame, I was waiting for all of them to walk out.

The pictures were taken with wide-angle to normal lenses (equivalent to 28mm, 35mm and 42mm in full frame) at a shutter priority setting with shutter speeds of between 1/60s and 1/500s, to ensure minimum camera shake and/or the freezing of movement in some scenes. The camera was set at medium ISO settings (between 400 and 800) to ensure aperture values remained in the mid-range (around f5.6 ~ f8) but also to maximize the dynamic range for the camera used. I completed a total of 9 photographic sessions for this assignment, with 174 pictures taken in total, all of them taken in central London at various times of the day. Post processing was primarily limited to lighting adjustments, corrections of the verticals and minor cropping.

Out of these, 30 pictures were initially selected and finally, cut down to 10. The final 10 were printed, out of which 7 were selected for submission. The final selection was made on the basis of how the print looked in terms of dynamic range, sharpness, and variety of locations. Most of the pictures selected also provide what I consider to be visual anchors, guiding the viewer’s attention towards certain parts of the images. The final selection in show below. Contact sheets marked to the initial selection can be found here. I have provided some brief notes on the shooting process for each picture in their caption.

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Regent’s canal, Islington – This picture was one of the more difficult ones to take because this section of the canal is particularly busy during the day, and specially around lunchtime (when this was taken) when many people run along the path to the left of the picture. I only had about a 5 second window when to take the shot and had to wait approximately 10 to 15 minutes for the right moment to do that.

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Cecil Court, City of Westminster – This was taken early on a Sunday when the shops in the court were mostly closed, which helped to have a clear foreground, but the thoroughfare at the far end is Charing Cross road, which is one of the busiest roads in central London, even on a Sunday. I did have to wait a while for people chatting on the pavement there to move along, as well as for the road to be cleared of buses and other traffic.

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The Barbican estate, City of London – This was also taken on a Sunday, around 10 am. The sitting area in the foreground is usually quite busy during weekdays, but relatively quiet during weekends.The main challenge in this occasion was people constantly entering the church at the back, as this was taken just before the start of Sunday’s service.

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Cheapside, City of London – Again taken on a Sunday, when crowds tend to be more subdued. In this one, I had to wait for people on the shop to the right to move out of the way (there was a smoker who removed himself by hiding behind one of the columns, although you can still see the smoke from his cigarettes if you look carefully). Surprisingly, the owner of the sweeper cart in the foreground did not enter the frame during the 5 minutes or so that I had to wait to take the picture. For this picture and the previous two, the shooting strategy primarily focused on selecting the right time of the day / week when places that would normally be full of people were less busy.

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The Barbican estate – City of London. This was taken during lunchtime on a week day, but I did not have to wait long to take this picture, as these gardens are normally only open to residents of the state and consequently not very busy.

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Moorgreen house, Islington. Like in the case of the picture above, I did not have to wait particularly long to take this picture because this road actually leads to the back of the estate and consequently not as busy as the main entrance. For this and the previous picture, the shooting strategy centered around finding locations that were urban and played into the expectation of being busy, but that in reality are never too busy, thus facilitating the shooting process.

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Golden Lane estate, City of London – This picture, part of the last shooting session for this assignment, was taken during lunchtime, when the tennis courts are particularly busy. On that day, both courts (only one fully visible here) were being used for coaching, and at any given time balls were flying over the net, with players occasionally moving into the frame to hit the balls. In keeping with the theme of trying to use visual anchors for the pictures in this set, I waited until sufficient net balls were accumulated into the middle of the ground, in an arrangement that was both in diagonal and ending on a third, before taking the shot.

Assignment 3 – Initial thoughts

When I first looked at this assignment, my original idea was to do something as close as possible to the traditional realm of “decisive moment” photography: street photography with strong geometrical elements and human presence. I even contemplated at one point, early on my thinking, to either use B&W film and gelatin silver prints, or present the digital prints rendered in monochrome to fit the original aesthetics of the concept. But just as I was starting to sketch the pictures I wanted to take in my notebook, I came to the realisation that this was just the easy way out (after all, I have been doing traditional street photography almost daily for a long while) and started to feel the urge to try a different approach.

After looking a video of Hiroshi Sugimoto talking about his seascape series (1), I found interesting the idea that he considered this series like a “time machine trip to go back to very ancient memories of our culture” (2) because he felt that the first men, when standing on the edge of a cliff and looking at the sea for the first time, would probably have seen something similar to his seascapes, devoid of any human intervention. Trying to translate this idea into a photographic series, and on the premise that what I have most at hand is a city (London), I decided to base this assignment on the concept of human intervention without human presence: to portray the city: its buildings, parks, cars and streets, all evidencing humanity, but without any person being visible in the frame.

The idea behind this is, like in Sugimoto’s seascapes, to translate us to a different era where cities have just been abandoned and the viewer is clueless as to what is going own. Sugimoto, in his website mentions that every time he sees the sea he feels “a calming sense of security” (2), but my intention with this series was to instil insecurity into the viewer by extracting from the images something they were expecting to be there, so that they may question what they see and doubt if what they are seeing is really what the photographer is presenting: is the landscape really devoid of people or are they hidden somewhere, either by the structures of by the choice of frame? This draws from the early work of Keith Arnatt, including his series on Self Burial (1969) and Invisible Hole Revealed by the Shadow of the Artist (1968), which tries to question the veracity of photography as a medium.

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(1) Krief, J.-P. (2000) Contacts vol 2: Hiroshi Sugimoto. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mcbEgEv2kUw (Accessed: 29 November 2016). Posted in YouTube by Ted Tezeu

(2) Idem

 

 

Research notes – The decisive moment

The following comments are in response to the article “The indecisiveness of the decisive moment” by Zouhair Ghazzal (1)

The fundamental premise of Ghazzal’s article is based on the understanding that the concept of the decisive moment is no longer relevant in the context of the modern globalised city-town, where presumably communities have been homogenised and, in the words of the author “…where not much was happening” (1). Ghazzal’s idea of the decisive moment, in its most effective incarnation, requires the photograph to split time at the precise junction that would elicit from the viewer a narrative spanning the time before and after the moment of the capture, thus giving meaning to what was captured. This coincides with the view of Cartier-Bresson himself, when he mentions that “…photography is the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as of a precise organisation of forms which give that event its proper expression”(2). For Cartier-Bresson, the existence of an event was indeed fundamental to his photography, which was only there for the purpose of giving such event a meaning. Ghazzal goes on to argue that the less successful decisive moment-type photographs lack this meaning and primarily rely on the relationship of form, light and gestures to sustain interest from the viewer, without any lasting message.

The confluence of Ghazzal’s view on what constitutes an effective decisive moment image, and his observation that the modern urban landscape is devoid of character and variety, and consequently lacking any events worth  capturing, would sustain his view that Cartier-Bresson’s view of photography is no longer relevant. Yet one has to wander to what extent this premise is sustained by the alleged lack of interesting action (which is subjective in any case) rather than by the lack of ability or desire by modern practitioners to effectively capture (or even seek out) such fleeting but interesting moments that, when correctly captured, could elicit that narrative or meaning that Ghazzal considers central to the idea of the decisive moment.

Ghazzal’s critique of the decisive moment also seems to center on the reliance by that type of photography on gestures, with the implication being that either one would get tired of seeing gestures at one point; or that the photographer would be somehow severely limited in his or her expressive abilities by this. Both arguments may be strictly correct, but I am struggling to see how any of this would explain why the decisive moment seems to have fallen out of grace in recent times (if indeed that has happened). With regards to the second point, Cartier-Bresson never implied that his view of photography was anything other than his own (3), and one would expect that other photographers after him would have developed their own vision based on whatever technique and restrictions they would want to impose on themselves to deliver that vision. For me, the overreliance of the decisive moment on gesture is no less (or more) reprochable than the overreliance of certain Dusseldorf school photographers on the correction of perspective, for example, yet to me both types of photography, with their limitations, are equally valid as means of expression in the contemporary world.

As for the first point, I am left wandering to what extent the backlash against the decisive moment is more a question of saturation? Ghazzal talks at some point earlier in his article about the decisive moment becoming a “legendary didactic notion, something similar perhaps to “the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism”…”(1). I can sympathise with this view to the extent that most of today’s street photography, both at the amateur and professional level, seems to be rooted on the basic formula of juxtaposition of elements, but perhaps, as Ghazzal laments, mostly in a way that leaves the viewer in front of just an anecdote without meaning. This, however, is more that anything else an issue of quality and should not detract from the validity or current relevance of the decisive moment as a means of expression. Perhaps the future, as with everything else, is the evolution of the decisive moment beyond the gestures, but still somehow capturing the essence of that fleeting moment that would merge the vision of the photographer with the elements within the frame.

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In connection with the subject of Henri Cartier-Bresson and the decisive moment, I also read the article “Nothing to Do with Me” by Gaby Wood as published by the London Review of Books in June 2014 (4).

Wood frames her critique of the decisive moment from a different angle than Ghazzal. Rather than focusing on the timing and the relevance of gestures, Wood’s main concern seems to be the excessive formality in some of Cartier-Bresson’s efforts, which rob the final photographs of a sense of humanity and intimacy. Wood notes that Cartier-Bresson himself “…sought to record ‘the emotion of the subject…that is, a geometric awakened by what’s offered” (5), but she doubts there is any connection between emotion and geometry, and then goes on to conclude that some of his most celebrated pictures feel impersonal because they are too precisely composed, with “…nothing raw about them, and you find yourself thinking: would it not be more interesting if his moments were a little less decisive?”(6)

Wood then makes the comparison between Cartier-Bresson approach as a photojournalist, essentially somebody reporting on something as an outsider, to that of his contemporary Jacques Henri Lartigue, who was primarily an amateur taking pictures of his family and close friends. According to Wood, the fact that Lartigue was an insider to the images he was producing allowed him to infuse them with a familiarity and perhaps intimacy that is lacking in some of the “decisive moment” pictures of Cartier-Bresson. Wood hammers this point later in the article when she talks about the photoghraphs that Cartier-Bresson took during the second world war, at a time when he was an escaped prisoner of war and consequently, more able to empathise with the subjects of his pictures, resulting in photographs that were “both powerful and difficult”(7).

Wood´s comments on Cartier-Bresson excessive formalism seems to have an indirect tie-back to Ghazzal critique: the juxtaposition of elements itself without a clear meaning will soon fall flat and bore the viewer. It is consequentially essential to be clear on what one aims to portray and to make sure that the message is given as much importance as the arrangement of the elements of the frame, which in the end must only serve the purpose of conveying that message.

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(1) Ghazzal, Z. (2004) Decisive moments. Available at: http://zouhairghazzal.com/photos/aleppo/cartier-bresson.htm (Accessed: 9 November 2016).

(2) Cartier-Bresson, H. and Sand, M.L. (1999) The mind’s eye: Writings on photography and photographers. New York, NY: Aperture Foundation, p. 42

(3) In his article “The Decisive Moment”, Cartier-Bresson mentions that he has “…talked at some length, but of only one kind of photography. There are many kinds…I don’t attempt to define it for everyone. I only attempt to define it to myself” (Cartier-Breslin, H. and Sand, M.L., op.cit., p. 42)

(4) Wood, G. (2014) “Nothing to Do with Me,” London Review of Books, 36(11), pp. 23–25.

(5) Ibid, p. 24.

(6) Ibid.

(7) Ibid, p. 25.

Research notes – Maarten Vanvolsem

The following comments follow from reading the article “Motion! On how to deal with the paradox in dance photography” (1) by Maarten Vanvolsem, a Belgian photographer and scholar.

Dr Vanvolsem, which main area of research is the relationship between photography and time, writes on this article about the limitations of traditional photographic equipment (ie cameras equipped with a central shutter) to capture the essence of dance, that is the choreographed movement. He talks about how various other photographers have tried to resolve this problem, including the use of various dancers moving simultaneously (see for example, here), in the same way as the timed sequences of chronophotography popularised by Dr Etienne-Jules Marey in the late 19th century to study the movement of animals (the so called Marey-effect (link)). The problem with this, Dr Vanvolsem reasons, is that none of these attempts are able to overcome the issue of stillness that is inherent to central-shutter photography: you are only able to capture a particular moment of the dance, a specific movement or passage in the sequence, but there is no way to get a feeling of the timing and the choreography. As a result, most of the traditional dance photography is primarily focused on the dancer rather than the dance itself.

Dr Vanvolsem then suggests that one way of overcoming this is by using  the slit-scan technique, which aims to capture a small strip of the frame over time, rather than the whole frame at once. This is, in a way, like a small motion picture captured in one frame of film. The technique of slit-scan allows the viewer to get a sense of not only motion, but acceleration as well, which would then enable the photoghrapher to depict the choreography of a dance. There are, however, limitations to this. Dr Vanvolsem uses some of his own images to illustrate his research and in my opinion, this shows that the technique is not very effective for choreographies that do not require the displacement of the dancer. In his image “Contraction of Movement 3” (link), the dancer seems to be girating on her feet and is difficult to get any sense of timing or acceleration in here. His image “Silent Move 12” (link), as well as another of his dance images available in http://www.kunstinhetdorp.be (link), are actually more effective at showing what the choreography would entail, as they include both vertical and horizontal desplacement of the dancer as well as a sense of the acceleration of her moves.

The slit-scan technique can also be used from a different perspective, which is that of the dancer. In a way that is not different from the use of action cams these days, Dr Vanvolsem explores how the choreography can be depicted by the moving of the camera around the space in the same way as the dancer moves: there is no fixed perspective or central point of view, resulting in an image that resembles a twisted 360 degree panorama (link). In these cases, because we do not have the reference of the dancer moving against a fixed background, is more difficult to decipher the choreography. Nonetheless, the images convey a clear sense of movement and acceleration, and are likely to be more suitable to depict dances where the performer does not displace his or her body too much.

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(1) Vanvolsem, M., Motion! On how to deal with the paradox in dance photography. Image [&] Narrative [e-journal], 23 (2008). Available from: http://www.imageandnarrative.be/timeandphotography/vanvolsem.htm (accessed on: 13 November 2016)